Educational leadership beyond instructional leadership unequal school funding in the united states

A Research Synthesis / Unequal School Funding in the United States

Bruce J. Biddle and David C. Berliner

What does the evidence say about unequal school funding and its effects?

Most people believe that students do better in well-funded schools and that public education should provide a level playing field for all children. Nearly half of the funding for public schools in the United States, however, is provided through local taxes, generating large differences in funding between wealthy and impoverished communities (National Center for Education Statistics, 2000a). Efforts to reduce these disparities have provoked controversy and resistance.

Those who oppose demands for more equitable school funding have embraced the claims of reviewers such as Eric Hanushek (1989), who wrote: Detailed research spanning two decades and observing performance in many different educational settings provides strong and consistent evidence that expenditures are not systematically related to student achievement. (p. 49)

But other well-known reviewers disagree. For example, in 1996, Rob Greenwald, Larry Hedges, and Richard Laine wrote: [Our analysis shows] that school resources are systematically related to student achievement and that those relations are large [and] educationally important. (p. 384)

Given such disputes, what should we believe about school funding and its impact? And given what we know today, what should we do about inequities in funding for education in the United States?

Differences in School Funding

Funding in the United States

Public school funding in the United States comes from federal, state, and local sources, but because nearly half of those funds come from local property taxes, the system generates large funding differences between wealthy and impoverished communities. Such differences exist among states, among school districts within each state, and even among schools within specific districts.

In 1998, for example, the state with the highest average level of public school funding (adjusted for differences in cost of living) was New Jersey, with an annual funding rate of $8,801 per student, whereas the state with the lowest average level was Utah, with a yearly rate of $3,804 per student (see fig. 1). This means that the typical student attending a public school in New Jersey was provided more than twice the fiscal resources allocated to his or her counterpart in Utah.

Top 10 jobs in information technology experience™

Top 10 Jobs in Information Technology

Top 10 jobs in information technology

Information technology – often shortened to just IT – is a buzz phrase you’ve probably heard ad nauseum if you happen to work with IT personnel or went to school for anything related to computers. IT workers are highly specialized in their field, which is probably why they’re often just called “IT nerds.” They like what they do and understand it inside and out. IT workers are also essential to just about every modern business model. If a company relies on phones and emails, chances are that there’s an IT professional behind it all making sure the cogs in the machine function properly.

So what’s the real benefit of being the behind-the-scenes technological lifeblood of a company? Excellent pay is your reward, more often than not. As the economy finds its footing and more jobs open up. expect the requirements of IT professionals to be vast as ever. Curious what you might like to do and how much someone will pay you to do it? Consider these 10 leading fields and their median salary ranges.

1. IT consultant

Ranking number 13 on CNN’s most recent Best Jobs in America list, the work of being an IT consultant is as vague as it sounds. In this position, your job is to evaluate the systems and do the research that no one else entirely understands. As CNN puts it, everyone from local startups to the Fortune 500 companies need IT consultants to help them figure out the cheapest and fastest ways to run computers better.

Education: A bachelor’s degree in computer science definitely helps, like most positions on this list. CNN also recommends that an IT consultant specialize in a niche category to help focus on the kind of experience he or she gets.

Salary: $96,400, according to CNN.

2. Cloud architect

You’ve heard of cloud computing of course. Although that storage space existing in the ether can’t be touched literally, it still needs to be organized and given an architecture. That’s what this job is for.

Education: A bachelor’s degree.

Salary: $112,000, making it one of the highest paying IT jobs.

3. Computer forensic investigator

Computer crime detectives – The Best Schools reports that computer forensic investigators search for, identify and evaluate information from computer systems, often for trial evidence.

Education: TBS says that you’ll need a degree in computer forensics, information security or cyber security. Certification from a computer examiner board also helps.

Salary: $64,000 according to TBS.

4. Health IT specialist

Health IT is a blossoming field, especially with major changes going on in healthcare due to the Affordable Care Act and the gradual transition to electronic health records. Health IT specialists will mix computer knowledge will record-keeping skills, but specialties in medical coding, billing and cancer registry are also in demand, according to TBS.

Education: While some health IT jobs require only an associate degree and/or certification, supervisory technician positions call for bachelor’s and master’s degrees.

Salary: $45,000, according to TBS.

5. Mobile application developer

Chances are that you and most people you know have smartphones and/or tablet computers. According to CareerRealism, the use of mobile tech is predicted to exceed personal computers at some time in 2013, so businesses are more heavily relying on IT professionals with experience in this field than ever before. Using basic coding languages, developers will create programs for future iOS and Android devices.

Education: A bachelor’s in software engineering, computer science, mobile computer or related fields, according to TBS.

Salary: $90,000 with high growth outlook, reports TBS.

6. Web developer

Web developers are jacks of all trades. They create web pages, web applications and web content, but their skill? set requires them to have excellent understanding of what makes a good operating system, what the average surfer finds visually stimulating and how to optimize sites for mobile tech, among numerous other skills. They also need proficiency in Web languages, like HTML and Javascript.

Education: TBS reports that the road to web design can be learned through accredited degree programs, but many web developers are self taught and use their “portfolios” to win positions.

Salary: $90,000, according to TBS.

7. Software engineer

Like video games? Want to design the next Facebook? This is for you. Software engineers are behind all the programs we run on our mobile devices and personal computers – and there is a very wide range of niche fields you can work in.

Education: According to TBS, a bachelor’s degree in software engineering or a related field is best.

Salary: $89,000 according to TBS.

8. Information technology vendor manager

Slightly more hands-off compared to some tech positions, vendor managers oversee supply when it comes to software and hardware. This can mean anything from Microsoft’s latest word processor to health IT programs for hospitals.

Education: Computer science degrees are helpful, but a deep understanding of business or even an MBA could clinch a job.

Salary: $88,000, reports TBS.

9. Geospatial professionals

Sound confusing? Geographic information systems are complicated, but exciting and getting moreso every day. GIS tech uses geographic data to evaluate and communicate trends and patterns in visually stylish and comprehensive ways, according to CareerRealism.

Education: Certificate programs and degrees both improve job outlook.

Salary: Up to $84,000, according to CareerRealism.

10. Data Modeler

Another position that translates poorly without jargon, these IT professionals create data designs and define relationships between data fields, according to TBS. Since any company’s data is vital, it’s modeling needs to work perfectly – a more complex task as reliance on computers grows.

Education: Bachelor’s degree in computer science, mathematics or IT – plus on-the-job experience, says TBS.

Salary: A hefty $103,000, according to TBS.

At, our mission is to provide the latest marketplace insights for students, recent college graduates and industry veterans. With expert guidance and breaking news about available premium entry level jobs and paid internships. your career starts here.

Harvard community education about us

Harvard Community Education

About Harvard Community Education

"Education is not preparation for life; education is life itself."

John Dewey

American philosopher

While your goals can range from career development through the acquisition of new skills and knowledge to personal enrichment aimed at a hobby or fulfilling a passion, continual education is essential to all aspects of life. We provide the tools necessary for these pursuits – and to proclaim yourself a life-long learner!


Current students: Please direct questions about your lessons, quizzes, assignments, and other course materials to your instructor or course administrator. You can use the course discussion areas for this purpose.

If you have questions about accessing the online classroom, retrieving your lessons, changing your password, correcting your e-mail address, obtaining progress reports or completion letters, receiving an extension, or any other administrative tasks, visit our Help page.

New or potential students: If you have questions about course content, prerequisites, requirements, follow-ups, or instructors, you’ll find the information you need by locating the courses that interest you. Click the course title to review the course details.

If you require any assistance with registration, please contact:

Harvard Community Education

Higher education degrees online capella university

Gain the Skills to Advance Your Career

Capella’s degree programs are closely aligned to professional standards to ensure you gain the same skills and knowledge as the top performers in your field. We continually review and adapt our programs to deliver the competencies you can immediately use today.

More than 80% of current Capella students say their education has had a direct impact on their career. CULES, 2010

We Stay in Touch with Your Profession

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Capella: An Accredited University

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Capella University is accredited by The Higher Learning Commission and is a member of the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools (NCA), Capella University, Capella Tower, 225 South Sixth Street, Ninth Floor, Minneapolis, MN 55402, 1-888-CAPELLA (227-3552), .

Adult education courses cornwall council

Adult Education courses

Last updated: 25/03/2014

We offer a wide variety of courses for everybody across Cornwall; adults, young people, families, businesses and community organisations.

Whether you want to keep your skills up to date, improve them to gain employment. move on at work, work in a new area or support self employment, we want to help you learn, enjoy and succeed.

We also have a new brochure for 2013/14 which shows all of the available courses. Please select the appropriate brochure below depending on your location:

How do I book onto a course?

You can book onto a course in a number of different ways whether it be online, over the phone, by post, in person, at one of our centres. To find out more please see our web page on joining a course.

How much do I pay?

Depending on your circumstances course fees will vary. Look at our course fees page for more information.

Want to study a GCSE for free?

Dycd jobs internships summer youth employment program syep

The Summer Youth Employment Program (SYEP) provides New York City youth between the ages of 14 and 24 with paid summer employment for up to six weeks in July and August. Participants work in a variety of entry-level jobs including:

  • Government Agencies
  • Hospitals
  • Summer Camps
  • Non-Profits
  • Small Businesses
  • Law Firms
  • Museums
  • Sports Enterprises
  • Retail Organizations

SYEP also provides workshops on job readiness, career exploration, financial literacy and opportunities to continue education and social growth.

Programs are located in community-based organizations in all five boroughs of New York City. Youth can apply for the program online or at a community-based organization during the application period. Participants are selected by lottery for the program.

Specialized programming for disabled, foster care, runaway/homeless and court-involved youth are also available.


Mindplay educational software for reading instruction

We Teach Reading

The ComputED Gazette  recently announced the winners  of its 20th Annual Best Educational Software Awards.  The Awards target innovative and content-rich programs and websites that provide parents and teachers with the technology to foster educational excellence. Our favorite reading program, MindPlay Virtual Reading Coach. is among the 2014 award winners. Congratulations to theVirtual Reading Coach!

MindPlay Education Software has three solutions to help every student become a fluent, grade-level reader: RAPS 360 Diagnostic Assessment, MindPlay Virtual Reading Coach  (MVRC), and FLRT – a fluent reading trainer.

RAPS 360  is a series of adaptive tests that are used to identify the specific skill gaps for every student. It takes less than thirty minutes to assess an entire class and reports are immediately available to help target instruction. In addition to screening, the RAPS 360 assessment is used for progress monitoring. For more information on RAPS 360 , click here .

MVRC  teaches fluent reading to everyone, from early learners to adults. MVRC  is especially effective for struggling students and students who have failed other methods. MVRC  begins with an assessment to identify each student’s instructional needs, it then automatically builds a Prescriptive Reading Plan (PRP). The PRP contains direct, explicit, differentiated instruction and activities that fill those gaps in the areas of Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, Vocabulary, Fluency, and Comprehension. MVRC also contains lessons in Grammar for Meaning to provide the initial link between simply reading words and reading text for meaning – all of which will ensure that users will exit the program reading at grade level or better. Most students experience improvement within ten hours and become fluent readers at their full potential between 40 and 60 hours. For more information on MVRC , click here  or take a quick Virtual Tour of MVRC .

FLRT – a fluent reading trainer  helps average and above average students with good phonics skills to read more fluently. Students quickly increase their reading level, speed, and comprehension by practicing with over a thousand authentic reading passages. For more information on FLRT , click here .

MindPlay’s mission is to develop, publish, and distribute cost effective, technology-based programs that promote accelerated student learning, individual growth, and skill development. We guarantee student results when used with fidelity. MindPlay solutions use clear objectives, inviting graphics, and modern technological innovations, so the programs appeal to multiple learning styles. Student interest level remains high because they receive only the lessons required to fill in the gaps in their overall skills.

Cisco training courses cisco certification courses from firefly

Do you have a question?

Firefly is at the forefront of internetworking technical training and continually invests and innovates in the lab experience, class content and classroom delivery methods.

Firefly’s technical training has a distinct engineering heritage. Our instructors and courseware designers maintain high standards of practical experience by spending time delivering not only classroom education, but also delivering Mentored Services, on site with customers.

Firefly has continually invested in physical hardware to support our education experience. Today, Firefly has one of the most sophisticated physical lab infrastructures available, all our equipment is located in our data center in Nevada, US.

Experts are evolving how they consume the education they require to maintain their expertise and industry certifications. Firefly has continued to innovate to match this evolution, all our classes today provide students the ability to participate remotely and we are currently pioneering the lead into e-books for courseware and lab guides.

Aice home

Welcome to AICE online

We offer Professional Development and Graduate* Courses for Teachers, Administrators & Educational Technicians

AICE courses are designed around current educational trends and the needs of educators. We are continually offering new courses which include: Bullying and Gender, Applied Behavior Therapy for Autistic Children, Technology in the Classroom, ADD/ADHD and many others. Our online courses are user friendly and include a “call time” where you can talk with the instructor.

When AICE was founded in 1974, our goal was to hire instructors who had actual classroom experience and would bring practical and creative ideas to the classroom. We are proud to continue that tradition. AICE instructors are highly qualified, have actual classroom experience and knowledge of the common core state and federal standards. AICE course ideas and strategies can be immediately implemented and assignments are individualized and relevant to your educational needs.

Master of arts in special education ball state university

Master of Arts in Special Education

Looking to add special education to your existing license? Through Ball State’s MA in special education, you can choose one of seven focus areas and make that your teaching focus.

Focus Areas

While all of our focus areas include online classes, three of them are offered 100 percent online: autism, applied behavior analysis, and director of exceptional needs. These three focus areas can be taken in an accelerated format and they can be earned in less than 18 months.

Below are the seven focus areas and delivery formats:

  • Applied Behavior Analysis —all online and in an accelerated format
  • Autism —all online and in an accelerated format
  • Deaf Education (Hearing Impairment)—combination of on-campus classes in Muncie, Indiana, and on-site at the Indiana School for the Deaf in Indianapolis
  • Director of Special Education/Exceptional Needs —all online
  • Early Childhood Special Education —combination of online courses and live, face-to-face summer classes at Ball State’s center in Fishers, Indiana
  • Mild Interventions —all online except one class that meets at Ball State’s center in Fishers, Indiana
  • Severe Interventions —all online

Ball State’s master’s in special education is nationally recognized by the Council for Exceptional Children (CEC), and its applied behavior analysis course sequence is approved by the Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB).

Build Your Own Degree

Many of the courses used for the master’s degree in special education can also be used toward various licensing programs in special education. However, this program does not provide you with an initial teaching license. Contact the Office of Teacher Education Services for more information regarding teacher licensing.

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