Pages welcome

Quick Launch

Learn Together on The Cambridgeshire Education Portal – the official Schools and Early Years Settings Portal

If this page is useful to you, why not tag it by clicking on the "like it" tag on the menu bar.

Have you checked that all your staff, including governors, have used their Portal accounts? If not, they’ll miss out on important information! Your school administrator has the tools to activate Portal accounts.

Recent updates to this system mean that resources are more accurately targetted to users in schools. But for that to happen you will need to log on, so the Portal recognises you and sends you what is relevant. Try it!

Have you browsed the list of Services on the Services Menu to see what Cambridgeshire resources are available to you?

Have you seen the list of LA Services to Schools under the Services tab? Or the general reference page. Have you scrolled through the news slideshow?

How do you write an internship report ask com

How do you write an internship report?


Individuals write internship reports by supplying detailed information about what they did and what they learned throughout their academic or work-related internship. Internship reports vary widely. However, all of these types of reports must include three main sections.

The first section of an internship report includes an introduction. This section of the internship report lists the name and the address of the company that supervised the internship and the main focus of the internship, such as a microbiology department or a video editing room. The second section is called the “Discussion of Projects.” Within this section, the individual lists her main responsibilities, such as conducting lab experiments, editing news videos or writing feature stories. The individual might also want to include how her skills contributed to the overall success of each listed project.

The third section of the internship report summarizes what the individual learned throughout the internship experience. It includes paragraphs detailing how the experience reinforced the individual’s career goals or influenced the individual to redirect her career path. This section also includes any new work perspectives gained from the experience that derived from her needs being met or not being met in relation to what was required of her throughout the internship.

History of computers in education

History, the History of Computers, and the History of Computers in Education

1780 – Early public schools adopt the teacher/manager model with the teacher as the primary manger of instruction and assessment in a single classroom.

1946 – First vacuum tube-based computers developed; universities help in computer development effort; technology used in war effort.

1951 – Little technology used in schools, primarily TV; baby boom begins with resulting increases in class size; first-generation Univac computer delivered to the US census bureau.

1954 – General Electric is the first business to order a computer. Early rock and roll music, based on the rhythm and blues tradition, gains a little in popularity.

1955 – IBM’s first commercial computer is sold; the cold war results in use of technology in aircraft design and in weapons control. Russia developing the technology for the first spacecraft.

1956 – Eisenhower elected president; Elvis Presley records “Hound Dog”; school overcrowding growing; school dropout rate rapidly declining toward zero; schools still based on the teacher/manager model in individual teacher-controlled classrooms; the cold war continues with technology playing an important role and is intensified when Russia sends up their Sputnik space vehicle to demonstrate their lead in technology.

1958 – As cold war continues, National Defense Education Act brings some new money and some new technology into schools, but primarily in vocational education. Mainframe host computers are not widely accepted in schools that are still using the si ngle classroom, teacher/manager method of delivering information to students.

1959 – Transistor-based computers in use; the cold war continues with public support for the development of technology needed for space exploration.

1960 – COBOL business-oriented, high-level programming language created; Kennedy elected president with campaign promises to put more money into education; crime rate doubles in one decade; Gary Powers shot down in hi-tech spy airplane; 70,000 invo lved in civil-rights sit-ins.

1962 – Airlines begin to use a computerized reservation system. President Kennedy diverts more money into education. The cold war continues and results in a confrontation with Russia as hi-tech spy planes discover missiles in Cuba; George Wallace campaigns for governor of Georgia pledging segregation forever.

1963 – Vocational Education Act passes with new money supporting the use of technology in schools; however, the mainframe and minicomputers in use at this time are using batch processing methods that do not fit well with the single teacher-as-manag er-of-learning methods in use in most schools; BASIC, a simple high-level programming language is developed, mostly for use in universities to train programmers; IBM 360 family of computers is developed; most computers still using host methods with punche d cards as the primary input device; line printers are still the primary output device; the cold war and the competitive space exploration effort continues with President Kennedy’s call for the science to be developed that could put a man on the moon.

1964 – Johnson elected president; the Beatles rapidly rise to stardom; Bob Dylan writes songs that give voice to the protest movement; the Gulf of Tonkin incident results in the first confrontation between the US and the government of North Vietnam ; the civil rights movement grows including a one-day civil-right protest absence of 464,000 students in New York; China explodes a test Atomic bomb.

1965 – Elementary and Secondary Education Act brings new money into schools for technology. mainframes and minicomputers are put into place in some schools, but most are used for administration or for school counseling (databases for information a bout and for students); the cold war continues as President Johnson expands the war, with 125,000 American troops in Vietnam; ; hi-tech weapons are used in bombings of North Vietnam; 50,000 Americans killed in traffic accidents.

1967 – High-level programming languages such as Fortran are being taught are in universities. School vocational training programs begin to include computer maintenance; Stokely Carmichael declares a need for SNCC to move from civil rights to black power; Mohammed Ali refuses army induction for religious reasons bringing national attention to both the black power movement and the anti-Vietnam movement; student strikes on many campuses related to protest over both civil rights and the policy in Viet nam; acid rock and protest rock grow in popularity; centers of dissidence like Haight-Ashbury in San Francisco develop; anti-war protests grow, especially on college campuses; 380,000 US troops in Vietnam.

1968 – Nixon elected president; riots in many cities break out over civil rights issues; the cold war continues with a rapid expansion of the war in Vietnam 9,419 dead in Vietnam; some programs designed to bring money for technology into schools ar e canceled; host computers are not widely adopted in schools because they are seen as appropriate for use with the teacher/manager model of learning (they don’t fit into the single classroom, but instead are accessed remotely by sending batches of data).

1969 – Neil Armstrong arrives on the moon; the Woodstock rock concert in upstate New York draws hundreds of thousands; the cold war and the war in Vietnam continues; many students, religious leaders, civil rights leaders, and ordinary citizens begi n to speak out against the war in Vietnam.

1970 – Pascal created; the US bombs Cambodia; Kent State antiwar students killed by Army reserve troops; mainframes and minicomputers in use in some schools, but very little use in the delivery of instruction.

1971 – Intel’s first microprocessor developed; the first microcomputers (PCs) are developed; mainframes and minicomputers are in wide use in business; a few software companies begin to develop mainframe and minicomputer- based instructional program s; 18-year old given the vote.

1972 – Five men working for President Nixon’s re-election caught in the Democratic party’s headquarters in the Watergate hotel complex; Nixon re-elected president and orders the bombing of North Vietnam.

1974 – President Nixon resigns and is given a full pardon by his successor, President Ford; a gasoline embargo creates lines at gas stations; Patty Hurst kidnapped; Hank Aaron breaks Babe Ruth’s lifetime home run record; Apple I computer is sold in kit form.

1975 – Some Apple 1 PCs are donated to schools; some schools have adopted mainframes and minicomputers and refuse to consider PCs; four Nixon administration official convicted in Watergate cover up; The war in Vietnam ends and the government of Nor th Vietnam invades and takes over South Vietnam.

1976 – Carter elected president; the cold war continues; Iraq holds hostages, rampant inflation; the Apple I computer gains popularity in small business.

1979 – 15 Million PCs estimated to be in use worldwide; PC-based spreadsheets developed, mainframes and minicomputers still in wide use.

1980 – Reagon elected President, the cold war continues with Reagon declaring Russia to be the “evil empire”; the TI 99 which uses a television screen as the monitor is the world’s most popular PC.

1981 – IBM is the first mainframe manufacturer to develop a PC; drill and practice CAI gains acceptance in schools; the cold war continues. The first educational drill and practice programs are developed for personal computers.

1983 – IBM PC clones proliferate; Sperry Corporation is the second mainframe manufacturer to develop a PC (actually developed by Mitsubishi in Japan); the Apple II computer finds widespread acceptance in education because PCs better fit the teacher /manager model of instructional delivery (PCs can be used to “support” the ongoing teaching in the single classroom). Simple simulation programs are developed for personal computers.

1984 – Reagon re-elected; 31 states use 13,000 PCs for career guidance, but there are still relatively few computers in classrooms; the Apple Macintosh computer is developed; computer-based tutorials and learning games are developed by commercial software manufacturers.

1986 – 25 % of high schools use PCs for college and career guidance, K-8 schools buying mostly Apple II and Macintosh computers, high schools buying mostly DOS-based clones.

1988 – Bush elected President; 60 % of all workers in the US use computers, laptops are developed; Gorbachoff proposes an end to the cold war;.

1990 – Multimedia PCs are developed; schools are using videodiscs; object-oriented multimedia authoring tools are in wide use; Simulations, educational databases and other types of CAI programs are being delivered on CD-ROM disks, many with animati on and sound; the US crime increases dramatically; the cold war ends.

1992 – Clinton elected President; for the first time, police and prison budgets begin to surpass education budgets; schools are using Gopher servers to provide students with on-line information.

1994 – Digital video, virtual reality, and 3-D systems capture the attention of many, but fewer multimedia PCs than basic business PCs are sold; object-oriented authoring systems such as HyperCard, Hyperstudio, and Authorware grow in popularity in schools; most US classrooms now have at least one PC available for instructional delivery, but not all teachers have access to a computer for instructional preparation.

1995 – The Internet and the world wide web began to catch on as businesses, schools, and individuals create web pages; most CAI is delivered on CD-ROM disks and is growing in popularity.

1996 – The Internet is widely discussed as businesses begin to provide services and advertising using web pages. New graphics and multimedia tools are developed for the delivery of information and instruction using the Internet; many schools are rewiring for Internet access; a few schools install web servers and provide faculty with a way to create instructional web pages.

1997-2007 – The growth of the internet expands far faster than most predicted. It soon becomes the world’s largest database of information, graphics, and streaming video making it an invaluable resource for educators; but marketing-oriented web pages, computer viruses hidden within downloadable programs and/or graphics, and spam (widely disseminated email-based sales pitches) threaten it’s usefullness. Search engines such as Google and Yahoo constantly develop new ways to find information within the ever-growing number of web pages. Web sites that offer individuals a place to put personal information become popular, as does internet-based publishing and discussion forums. Voice recognition slowly enters the computing mainstream, but it’s development is slowed by an unacceptable frequency of errors. Some computers incorporate TV input, but it is not as common as many predicted. Educational software becomes more useful and interesting to students as graphics and video are incorporated. Larger computer storage capacity and the growing prevalence of CD-ROM and DVD drives in personal computers make it easier for educators to store large graphic and video and sound files for educational applications.

Education definition of education by the free online dictionary thesaurus and encyclopedia


4. the result produced by instruction, training, or study.

5. the science or art of teaching; pedagogics.

[1525–35; (< Middle French) < Latin]


  1. Alumni are like the wake of a ship; they spread out and ultimately disappear, but not until they have made a few waves —Anon
  2. Colleges are like old-age homes; except for the fact that more people die in colleges —Bob Dylan
  3. Education begins, like charity, at home —Susan Ferraro, New York Times /Hers, March 26, 1987

The charity comparison has been effectively linked with other subjects.

  • Education, like neurosis, begins at home —Milton R. Sapirstein
  • Education, like politics, is a rough affair, and every instructor has to shut his eyes and hold his tongue as though he were a priest —Henry Adams
  • Getting educated is like getting measles; you have to go where the measles is —Abraham Flexner
  • He was like an empty bucket waiting to be filled [with knowledge] —William Diehl
  • He who teaches a child is like one who writes on paper; but he who teaches old people is like one who writes on blotted paper —The Talmud
  • Human beings, like plants, can be twisted into strange shapes if their training begins early enough and is vigilantly supervised. They will accept their deformation as the natural state of affairs and even take pride in it, as Chinese women once did in their crippled feet —Milton R. Sapirstein

    Sapirstein, a psychologist, used this simile to introduce a discussion about the educational impulse and its relationship to the educational process.

  • If it [learning] lights upon the mind that is dull and heavy, like a crude and undigested mass it makes it duller and heavier, and chokes it up —Michel De Montaigne
  • Learning in old age is like writing on sand; learning in youth is like engraving on stone —Solomon Ibn Gabirol
  • Learning is like rowing upstream: not to advance is to drop back —Chinese proverb
  • Learning, like money, may be of so base a coin as to be utterly void of use —William Shenstone
  • Learning without thought is labor lost —Confucius
  • Many a scholar is like a cashier: he has the key to much money, but the money is not his —Ludwig Boerne
  • Modern education is a contradiction. It’s like a three-year-old kid with a computer in his hand who can multiply 10.6 per cent interest of $11,653, but doesn’t know if a dime is larger or smaller than a nickel —Erma Bombeck
  • The need of a teacher to believe now and again that she fosters genius is like the writer’s need to believe that he is one —Lael Tucker Wertenbaker
  • Rolling on like a great growing snowball through the vast field of medical knowledge —William James
  • A scholar is like a book written in a dead language: it is not everyone that can read in it —William Hazlitt
  • A scholar should be like a leather bottle, which admits no wind; like a deep garden bed, which retains its moisture; like a pitch-coated vessel, which preserves its wine; and like a sponge, which absorbs everything —The Talmud
  • Soap and education are not as sudden as a massacre, but they are more deadly in the long run —Mark Twain
  • Students are like acorns and oaks, there’s a lot more bark to the oak and a lot more nuttiness in the acorn —Anon
  • Study is like the heaven’s glorious sun —William Shakespeare
  • Take it in like blotting paper —Mavis Gallant
  • The teacher is like the candle which lights others in consuming itself —Giovanni Ruffini
  • Teachers, like actors, must drug themselves to be at their best —Delmore Schwartz
  • Teaching a class was in a way like making love. Sometimes he did it with great enthusiasm … sometimes he did it because it was expected of him, and he forced himself to go through the motions —Dan Wakefield
  • Teaching a fool is like gluing together a potsherd [pottery fragment] —The Holy Bible/Apocrypha
  • Their learning is like bread in a besieged town; every man gets a little, but no man gets a full meal —Samuel Johnson

    Johnson’s simile referred to his view of Scottish education.

  • To study and forget is like bearing children and burying them —The Talmud
  • To transmit wisdom to the unworthy is like throwing pearls before swine —Moses Ibn Ezra
  • Your education, like … carrots, is not a manufactured article, but just a seed which has grown up largely under nature’s friendly influence —William J. Long
  • Thesaurus Legend: Synonyms Related Words Antonyms

    Education in kenya classroom divisions the economist

    Paid-for private schools are better value for money than the “free” sort

    Click this to add articles to your Timekeeper reading list. Learn more »

    THERE can scarcely be two words in Kenya that cause more resentment than “school fees”. It is now more than ten years since charges for state primary schools in east Africa’s biggest economy were abolished by law. Yet it is an open secret that education is not truly free. In fact, fees are rising. Dorcas Mutoku, a policeman’s wife whose two sons attend a public primary school in the capital, Nairobi, has found that levies have simply been renamed. She has to find the equivalent of $35 for a one-off “signing-on” fee, and pay almost as much again for admission fees. End-of-term exams, uniforms and books cost at least another $10 per child.

    Kenya’s parents will get their day in court on February 21st, when a lawsuit will be heard that accuses Jacob Kaimenyi, the education minister, and Belio Kipsang, his top civil servant, of failing to implement the law. Musau Ndunda, head of the national parents’ association, which is bringing the suit, says the government is guilty of “extraordinary doublespeak” when its officials ask why anyone would pay to send their child to school. Adding to Mr Ndunda’s frustration is his awareness, shared by many thousands of Kenyan parents, that the illicit fees are not being spent on better books and facilities but are merely padding the incomes of school administrators, none of whom—as far as he can tell—has been prosecuted.

    In this section

    Related topics

    Kenya has made steady progress towards meeting the Millennium Development Goals to lessen poverty that were set by the UN in 2000. Foreign aid has poured into Kenya’s state education system, bringing the country as close as any in sub-Saharan Africa to achieving universal primary schooling. In the past decade about 4m new pupils entered the classroom; nearly nine out of ten school-age Kenyans under 11 are now in education.

    But the row over the continued imposition of fees, and concerns over plummeting standards, make many observers wonder if the money has been wisely spent. Mwangi Kimenyi, a Kenyan economist at the Brookings Institution, a think-tank in Washington, DC, says that donors and governments have broadened access to school at the cost of creating a “dysfunctional public-education system where millions of children are attending school but are not learning”.

    The goal of wider enrolment, he argues, was “poorly conceived”, as it has failed to keep up standards. A World Bank report in 2013 found that Kenyan teachers were absent almost half the time. And pupils in Kenya’s state schools received on average little more than two hours of instruction a day. Another study found that only one-third of public-sector teachers scored at least 80% when tested on the curriculum they are meant to teach.

    The big beneficiaries are Kenya’s private schools, where enrolment has tripled from 4% of pupils in 2005 to 12% at the latest count. They have to compete for pupils, can sack bad teachers, and offer tuition at relatively modest rates. Research by Brookings under its “Africa Growth Initiative” found that the fees for two-thirds of children in Kenyan private schools are lower than in the supposedly free state system.

    Bridge International, a chain of local low-cost private schools, puts its cost per child in primary school at one-fifth of the $350 it estimates as the total real combined cost for parents and the state in the public system. “We’ve shown you can do a lot more with a lot less in the private sector,” says Shannon May, a co-founder. It is time, she adds, for big foreign donors to consider helping the private-education sector and for African governments to acknowledge and welcome its role in taking some of the strain off the state.

    Human rights education amnesty international

    What is Human Rights Education?

    Amnesty International’s definition of Human Rights Education:

    ‘Human rights education is a deliberate, participatory practice aimed at empowering individuals, groups and communities through fostering knowledge, skills and attitudes consistent with internationally recognized human rights principles.’

    ‘As a medium to long-term process, human rights education seeks to develop and integrate people’s cognitive, affective and attitudinal dimensions, including critical thinking, in relation to human rights. Its goal is to build a culture of respect for and action in the defence and promotion of human rights for all.’

    Human rights education is an internationally recognized method for promoting human rights on a local, national and global level among many levels of stakeholders.

    Human rights education can also play a vital role in building social structures that support participatory democracies and the resolution of conflict, and can provide a common understanding of how to address political and social differences equitably and celebrate cultural diversity.