Philosophical perspectives in education

      Section III – Philosophical Perspectives in Education Part 3

    Educational Philosophies

    Within the epistemological frame that focuses on the nature of knowledge and how we come to know, there are four major educational philosophies, each related to one or more of the general or world philosophies just discussed. These educational philosophical approaches are currently used in classrooms the world over. They are Perennialism, Essentialism, Progressivism, and Reconstructionism. These educational philosophies focus heavily on WHAT we should teach, the curriculum aspect.

    For Perennialists, the aim of education is to ensure that students acquire understandings about the great ideas of Western civilization. These ideas have the potential for solving problems in any era. The focus is to teach ideas that are everlasting, to seek enduring truths which are constant, not changing, as the natural and human worlds at their most essential level, do not change. Teaching these unchanging principles is critical. Humans are rational beings, and their minds need to be developed. Thus, cultivation of the intellect is the highest priority in a worthwhile education. The demanding curriculum focuses on attaining cultural literacy, stressing students’ growth in enduring disciplines. The loftiest accomplishments of humankind are emphasized– the great works of literature and art, the laws or principles of science. Advocates of this educational philosophy are Robert Maynard Hutchins who developed a Great Books program in 1963 and Mortimer Adler, who further developed this curriculum based on 100 great books of western civilization.

    Essentialists believe that there is a common core of knowledge that needs to be transmitted to students in a systematic, disciplined way. The emphasis in this conservative perspective is on intellectual and moral standards that schools should teach. The core of the curriculum is essential knowledge and skills and academic rigor. Although this educational philosophy is similar in some ways to Perennialism, Essentialists accept the idea that this core curriculum may change. Schooling should be practical, preparing students to become valuable members of society. It should focus on facts-the objective reality out there–and “the basics,” training students to read, write, speak, and compute clearly and logically. Schools should not try to set or influence policies. Students should be taught hard work, respect for authority, and discipline. Teachers are to help students keep their non-productive instincts in check, such as aggression or mindlessness. This approach was in reaction to progressivist approaches prevalent in the 1920s and 30s. William Bagley, took progressivist approaches to task in the journal he formed in 1934. Other proponents of Essentialism are: James D. Koerner (1959), H. G. Rickover (1959), Paul Copperman (1978), and Theodore Sizer (1985).

    Progressivists believe that education should focus on the whole child, rather than on the content or the teacher. This educational philosophy stresses that students should test ideas by active experimentation. Learning is rooted in the questions of learners that arise through experiencing the world. It is active, not passive. The learner is a problem solver and thinker who makes meaning through his or her individual experience in the physical and cultural context. Effective teachers provide experiences so that students can learn by doing. Curriculum content is derived from student interests and questions. The scientific method is used by progressivist educators so that students can study matter and events systematically and first hand. The emphasis is on process-how one comes to know. The Progressive education philosophy was established in America from the mid 1920s through the mid 1950s. John Dewey was its foremost proponent. One of his tenets was that the school should improve the way of life of our citizens through experiencing freedom and democracy in schools. Shared decision making, planning of teachers with students, student-selected topics are all aspects. Books are tools, rather than authority.

    Reconstructionism/Critical Theory

    Social reconstructionism is a philosophy that emphasizes the addressing of social questions and a quest to create a better society and worldwide democracy. Reconstructionist educators focus on a curriculum that highlights social reform as the aim of education. Theodore Brameld (1904-1987) was the founder of social reconstructionism, in reaction against the realities of World War II. He recognized the potential for either human annihilation through technology and human cruelty or the capacity to create a beneficent society using technology and human compassion. George Counts (1889-1974) recognized that education was the means of preparing people for creating this new social order.

    Critical theorists, like social reconstructionists, believe that systems must be changed to overcome oppression and improve human conditions. Paulo Freire (1921-1997) was a Brazilian whose experiences living in poverty led him to champion education and literacy as the vehicle for social change. In his view, humans must learn to resist oppression and not become its victims, nor oppress others. To do so requires dialog and critical consciousness, the development of awareness to overcome domination and oppression. Rather than “teaching as banking,” in which the educator deposits information into students’ heads, Freire saw teaching and learning as a process of inquiry in which the child must invent and reinvent the world.

    For social reconstructionists and critical theorists, curriculum focuses on student experience and taking social action on real problems, such as violence, hunger, international terrorism, inflation, and inequality. Strategies for dealing with controversial issues (particularly in social studies and literature), inquiry, dialogue, and multiple perspectives are the focus. Community-based learning and bringing the world into the classroom are also strategies.

    Think about It:

  • Which of these educational philosophies would you describe as authoritarian? Which as non-authoritarian? Why?

  • Each of the educational philosophies relates to one or more of the metaphysical world view philosophies. What connections do you see?

  • Which educational philosophy is most compatible with your beliefs? Why?

Free share market education investment basics kotak securities

Share Market Education

When it comes to online trading. lack of certainty leads to inaction. One needs to be completely informed about the markets, online trading applications, processes and basics of investing. Kotak Securities has created several programs to help you learn everything about the stock market investing. This initiative has helped several customers learn stock markets and online trading and become successful traders.

Below are few of our programs and demos under the customer education initiative:

Kotak Securities Academy: An online initiative that depicts our relentless commitment to educate on the basics of investing, with a collection on Equities, Derivatives and Mutual Funds. Click here to visit Academy>>

Smart Start: An inspiring storyboard for young investors to understand the importance of saving and investing for the future. Click here to visit Smart Start>>

Webinars: As a customer of Kotak Securities, you’ll be invited to all our educative webinars from time to time. You’ll get to learn online trading methods with Kotak Securities and tactics of stock market investing.

Horizon: A fortnightly newsletter that educates you on various asset-classes and updates you on the markets. Click here to read our newsletter articles and subscribe >>

Research Reports: Be informed of every investment you make by referring to our various detailed reports. You’ll have an access to

  • Industry-level reports
  • Company specific reports
  • Mutual Fund recommendation reports
  • Currency derivatives reports
  • Derivative Toolkit
  • Technical Reports

    Research Seminars: We conduct workshops and tutorial seminars at frequent intervals across the country. As a customer of Kotak Securities, you shall have the privilege to get invited for all such events.

    Research and Educative Conference-calls: Our regular con-calls educate you on our how to use our various platforms for online trading and also would update you on the markets.

    Books: It has been our constant endeavour to come out with handy books that you can use to increase your financial literacy. Few books that we have published are:

    1. A guide to Derivatives: Get this book for free when you open an account with us
    2. Everything you wanted to know about stock market investing: In collaboration with CNBC TV 18, this book will help you understand the all the market nuances. Click here to Buy now>>
    3. Everything you wanted to know about Investing: In collaboration with CNBC TV 18, this book helps you understand every bit of the investment world. Click here to Buy Now>>

    Social Media: Think about it, it was only approximately 20 some odd years ago that the average person was beginning to become associated with the internet. Prior to that, the internet was mostly reserved for academia and various government agencies. Today, we have not only the internet, but we have social media tied in there as well. We know that you’re already there or will be there soon and made our presence noted.

    Following are our pages on various social media sites where you can follow us, learn and be up to date:

    • Slideshare: Find presentations on the various financial concepts that we wish you to learn.
  • Youtube. We regularly upload our views on the market here.
  • Twitter: Follow us to get market updates and latest happening.
  • Facebook: We have a dedicated page here with lots of activities.
  • Hotel jobs and careers employment and job opportunities worldwide hyatt

    U.S. EEO Statement

    All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to race, color, religion, sex, national origin, disability or protected veteran status.

    Accessibility Assistance

    Hyatt endeavors to make accessible to any and all users. If you are covered by the American with Disabilities Act and would like to request assistance with our website or application process, please contact our ADA Support Line at 312-884-9288 or All other inquiries and technical support requests can be submitted via Contact Us. Hyatt will not accept resumes at this email address. Please click the Apply Now button in the top right corner to learn about Hyatt's application options, including the ability to email a resume to create a general profile.

    Applicants seeking employment with Hyatt or a Hyatt property should be aware of employment recruiting scams in which people falsely claim to represent Hyatt or a Hyatt property. Generally, these employment recruiting scams utilize the Internet or local newspapers to advertise fictitious job openings and request that applicants send an employment application, resume, CV, or other personal information to an e-mail address or fax number that are not associated with Hyatt or a Hyatt property. As part of these scams, job seekers are sometimes asked to pay fees purportedly to cover application processing, work permits, and/or immigration fees.

Neither Hyatt nor Hyatt properties charge fees in connection with applications on If you have any concerns about the legitimacy of an employment opportunity with Hyatt or a Hyatt property, please visit or email to obtain contact information for the Hyatt property, and contact the property directly to confirm the opportunity. If you believe that you are a victim of a scam, please contact your local police. Please contact us at should you have any questions.

    Johns hopkins pharmacy internship program

    Pharmacy Internship Program


    The Johns Hopkins Pharmacy Internship Program was established to provide pharmacy students with a structured learning experience intended to provide a comprehensive exposure to hospital and health system pharmacy practice. Approximately 15-19 students are hired for the summer at one of our locations—the main, East Baltimore campus, the Bayview Medical Center, the Johns Hopkins Home Care Group headquarters, or the Howard County outpatient pharmacy. Based on their assigned location, student interns may require a vehicle for transportation.

    The start date and completion date for each student intern varies based on the academic calendar for their respective College of Pharmacy. However, the latest start date is the first week of June. Student interns typically work 40 hours per week and scheduled hours are determined by the preceptor.

    The internship program is structured to provide experiences that supplement formal didactic training. The program supports and guides the student intern while allowing them to progress at their own pace, based upon their experiences and interests. Unlike academic programs, no grade is given although meetings are scheduled with preceptors to discuss their progress to assure value for the student intern and the Department of Pharmacy. The intern’s enthusiasm and interest in the program will, in part, determine the value of their experience.

    Contact Information:

    Contact information:

    The Johns Hopkins Hospital, The Pharmacy Department

    600 North Wolfe Street, Carnegie 180

    Baltimore, MD 21287


    Phone: 410-955-8636 Hospital